Human Anatomy Lecture Notes Lecture 1 The Human Body Orientations

Human Anatomy Lecture Notes Lecture 1 The Human Body Orientation

اﻟﺑروﻓﺳﯾور د. ﻋﻠﻲ اﻟﺗﻣﯾﻣﻲ ,اﺳﺗﺎذ اﻟﺑﺎﺛوﻓﺳﯾوﻟوﺟﻲ واﻟﺗﺷرﯾﺢ اﻟﻣرﺿﻲ,دﻛﺗوراة اﻟﻛﻠﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﻠﻛﯾﺔ اﻧﻛﻠﺗرا

وزﻣﯾل ﻛﻠﯾﺔ اﻻﻣراض اﻟﺑورد اﻻﻣرﯾﻛﻲ

Prof Ali Altimimi Professor of PathoPhysiology & Anatomical Pathology,MbCHB,MSC,PHD,MD.Royal College London محاضرات التشريح للاقسام الطبية لطلبة كلية الرافدين الجامعة

The Human Body Orientation
• Terms
– Anatomy: the study of body structure and relationships among structures
– Physiology: the study of body function
• Levels of Organization
– Chemical level
1. atoms and molecules
– Cells
1. the basic unit of all living things – Tissues
1. cells join together to perform a particular function

– Organs
1. tissues join together to perform a particular function

– Organ system

1. organs join together to perform a particular function
– Organismal

1. the whole body
• Organ Systems

• Anatomical Position
• Regional Names
– Axial region
1. head
2. neck
3. trunk
a. thorax
b. abdomen
c. pelvis
d. perineum

– Appendicular region
1. limbs
• Directional Terms

– Superior (above) vs. Inferior (below)
– Anterior (toward the front) vs. Posterior (toward the back)(Dorsal vs. Ventral)
– Medial (toward the midline) vs. Lateral (away from the midline)

– Intermediate (between a more medial and a more lateral structure)
– Proximal (closer to the point of origin) vs. Distal (farther from the point of origin)
– Superficial (toward the surface) vs. Deep (away from the surface)
• Planes and Sections divide the body or organ

– Frontal or coronal

1. divides into anterior/posterior – Sagittal
1. divides into right and left halves
2. includes midsagittal and parasagittal

– Transverse or cross-sectional
1. divides into superior/inferior
• Body Cavities
– Dorsal
1. cranial cavity
2. vertebral cavity
– Ventral
1. lined with serous membrane
2. viscera (organs) covered by serous membrane
3. thoracic cavity
a. two pleural cavities contain the lungs
b. pericardial cavity contains heart
c. the cavities are defined by serous membrane
d. mediastinum is the area between the pleurae, includes everything in thoracic cavity
except lungs
4. abdominopelvic cavity
a. abdominal cavity is lined by peritoneum (serous membrane), which also covers organs
b. pelvic cavity has reproductive organs, bladder, portions of large intestine
c. regions and quadrants 111Human Anatomy Lecture Notes1 بروفسيورعلي التميمي ,استاذ الباثوفسيولوجي والتشريح المرضي